4. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis and the results thereof indicated that indeed, IK can be utilized as an alternative. Focus groups rely on interaction within the group based on topics that are supplied by the researcher. <> We then discuss in detail, provided guidelines to improve the standard of reporting and. Sage, UK. University of Cambridge and University of Exeter, School of Biological Sciences, University, Conservation Science Group, Department of, which involves the generation of numerous category codes, = 144) used focus group discussions alongside other methods, Change in the number of published studies in, Beware of biases affecting group discussions: Unlike interviews or, International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, In the field: An introduction to field research, Interviewing: Strategy, techniques, and tactics. Focus group discussion can be utilised within a suite of techniques in a multiâmethod research design, as a principal research method in its own right, or as a form of participatory action research to empower participants and promote social change (Wilkinson, 1998, 1999). The next step is to identify a convenient venue for the discussion. A focus group is a small-group discussion guided by a trained leader. The methodology of Focus Groups 105 tidpants. checking: A tool to enhance trustworthiness or merely, can they be used in nursing and health car. This paper contributes to contemporary debates on novel approaches to promote engagement with communities for improving biodiversity conservation and livelihoods in emerging transfrontier conservation areas. Even though the application of this method in conservation research has been extensive, there are no critical assessment of the application of the technique. The selected FGD participants encompass the collective views that cut across the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental aspects of renewable energy development in Indonesia. Focus Group Weaknesses As with any research method, focus groups are not without weaknesses. Here, we reviewed the applications of focus group discussion within biodiversity and conservation research between 1996 and April 2017. Understanding Focus Groups. Our result also revealed that around 55 % of inland bycatch and 42 % of marine bycatch is associated with overfishing (vulnerability score > 1.8). searcher thereby takes a peripheral, rather than a centre-, Hohenthal, Owidi, Minoia, & Pellikka, 2015; Johnson, 1996; Kitzinger, most people derive their notions, mental constructions and interpr, discussion technique based on a review of its application in conserva, the technique and then provide an overview of the different forms of, Focus group discussion consists of four major steps as shown. Confirmability was, on average, inadequately accounted for, particularly with respect to researchersâ ontology, epistemology, or philosophical perspective and their choice of methodology. There were seven (median) focus group meetings per study. The UTAUT model is a theoretical framework that elucidates the conditions under which teachers are most likely to accept and use information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom. The screening process resulted in 170 articles, the majority of which (67%, n = 114,) were published between 2011 and 2017. Focus groups provide a qualitative method of data collection. We found that dependability and credibility were reasonably well reported, albeit poorly evolved in relation to critical aspects of qualitative social science such as methodology and triangulation, including reflexivity. This simplistic reporting might not acknowledge the value of using the method, nor its juxtaposition with the interpretative stance of qualitative research. This study concluded that inquiry based online contents should be designed considering students interests based on learning subjects and also developed in terms of students interests and strong motivation as well. Focus Groups Focus groups are essentially a âseries of discussions to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interestâ (Krueger and Casey, 2009: 2). Stewart, D. W., & Shamdasani, P. N. (1990). relationships between and among categories (Miles & Huberman, documenting the value of indigenous knowledge s, We identified 170 papers (henceforth studies with references, negotiation and evaluation of research problems and findings between. ment and relevance to ecological research (Austin et al., 2010). (Bloor et al., 2001; Morgan et al., 1998). The nominal group technique (NGT) is a qualitative method to elicit judgement from stakeholders. focus group discussion is a commonly used method. In this method, group dynamics can encourage people to describe their perspectives that occur less frequently in an individual interview. The study describes in this paper uses direct evidence from processes applied for the developing economy of Indonesia, as it defines the trajectory for its future energy policy and energy research agenda. Preparing for focus group discussion 8. Once all the data are analysed, the researcher needs to consolidate the, outlined by Sandelowski (1993), Morse (1994) and Angen, as one group in one place. A focus group is a form of qualitative research. Nominal Group Technique (HugÃ© & Mukherjee, qualitative data collection approach and a, Orr, 1992). A focus group usually consists of 5-12 individuals who all possess certain characteristics pertaining to the topic of the group. We noted serious gaps in the reporting of the methodological details in the reviewed papers. It is applied within the online envi, pants with access to the Internet and are prone to technical problems. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Rooted in a Philippine state university experience, this qualitative study employs phenomenological research design to explore the role of pedagogical belief on the use of ICT tools in the teaching-learning activities among the educators who are teaching courses in a teacher education institution. Hence, a focus group discussion is one of the several ways used to explore and gain in-depth of people's understanding, interpretation and experiences of social issues, ... PR was deemed suitable for this study because of its qualities of describing the process of collaboration between the researcher and co-researchers with the objectives of quality improvements (Frankena, Naaldenberg , Cardol , Linehan , van Schrojenstein Lantman-de,2015). Be sure to check out How to Design a Focus Group and How to Conduct a Focus Group before you read this one. Marine fisheries around the globe are increasingly exposed to external drivers of social and ecological change. Most focus groups involve between 6-10 respondents with a discussion that will last for 1-2 hours per session. Data or results are returned to participants to check for accuracy and resonance with their experiences. Four main themes emerged from the review: understanding of people's perspectives regarding conservation (32%), followed by the assessment of conservation and livelihoods practices (21%), examination of challenges and impacts of resource management interventions (19%) and documenting the value of indigenous knowledge systems (16%). The discussions are kept under control: The discussions in the focus groups can be kept under control. This study shows that pedagogical belief plays a role with performance expectancy and effort expectancy in influencing an educator's behavioral intention to use technology. The focus of each researcher's note-taking efforts might be different (e.g. The study, therefore, formulates Socio-thematic Analysis (StA) as a new technique of data analysis which enables social issue researchers to rationalise the sociality of the people living with the problem. Morgan, D.L. There is an increasing divergence of focus group practice between social researchers and commercial market researchers. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. the data to be obtained from focus groups is as important as it is for any other type of research. A clear rationale. Hilsa was found to be moderately vulnerable to gillnet fishing. Two key challenges to resolving this problem are: (a) integrating science-based and values-based (e.g. In this type of focus group discussion, researchers recruit some of, is thought to impact on the dynamics of the group by influencing par, ticipantsâ answers, thereby increasing the chances of varied and more, Under these circumstances, researchers, adaptation of traditional methods. Designing and implementing long-term management strategies for chronic biological invasions is amongst the most vexing ecological research problems. records and discussion group analysis. Knowledge and use, Heary, C. M., & Hennessy, E. (2002). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Morse, M. J. intimidation or influence by dominant or aggressive participants (179). lose focus and interest in the topic quicker than adults. Important note: If youâre hoping to do serious journal-worthy qualitative analysis, this post might not be for you. Next, we propose a transdisciplinary knowledge ecology framework where each knowledge source is represented by a separate knowledge generation and curation platform (i.e. Most of the studies were in Africa (n = 76), followed by Asia (n = 44), and Europe (n = 30). In addition to this, they are very cheap to do, easy to set up and if needed, a research group can easily increase the number of samples or the focus groups if needed for the study (Krueger 1994). In research, focus group discussions (FGD) are a more formal way of getting groups of people to discuss selected issues. This is the last post in a three-part series on designing, conducting, and analyzing results from focus groups. Guidelines for conducting a focus group 6. This is part of the Jan 2018 special issue in the journal Methods in Ecology and Evo, Scenario planning has gained prominence among conservationists and policy-makers as a tool for planning, forecasting and learning about the future.